2020欧洲杯时间

Super Seismic: Words for Volcanoes and Earthquakes

Though most geological movement is far too slow for us to see, sometimes the incredible heat and pressure created by our ever-changing planet bursts to the surface with awesome force. This list will get your volcanic vocabulary on solid ground.
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definitions & notes only words
  1. aftershock
    a tremor following the main tremor of an earthquake
    The worst of the drought is concentrated in Puerto Rico's southern region, which continues to be affected by aftershocks following a 6.0-magnitude earthquake that hit in early January and caused millions in damage.
  2. continent
    one of the large landmasses of the earth
    A wild herd of European bison, the continent's largest land mammal, will be in their new home by spring 2022.
    The Earth's seven continents are made up of huge plates, which are slowly moving around and rubbing against each other. When there's a sudden release of pressure between two plates, the result is an earthquake. Areas where magma bursts to the surface as lava are better known as volcanoes.
  3. core
    the central part of the Earth
    The core orbits so close to its parent star that a year is a mere 18 hours and its surface temperature is around 1,527C.
  4. crust
    the outer layer of the Earth
    Now, a new study suggests why they occurred: The landslides scraped away so much soil and rock that Earth’s crust, newly lightened, buckled in new ways.
  5. dormant
    inactive but capable of becoming active
    On the dormant volcano Maunakea in Hawaii, she finds a tiny fern thriving beneath fragments of broken lava.
    Dormant means "sleeping" in Latin, and French borrowed that. This is a useful way of thinking about a volcano that hasn't erupted for a long time, but still might.
  6. earthquake
    vibration from underground movement along a fault plane
    The temple became known to Vietnamese circles after it took in Vietnamese workers who were left homeless after the 2011 earthquake in northern Japan.
  7. epicenter
    a point on the Earth's surface directly above an earthquake
    The strongest earthquake in 20 years shook a large area of Southern California and parts of Nevada, causing injuries and damage in the town of Ridgecrest, near the epicenter.
    Epicenter is a technical term referring to the spot on the Earth's surface directly above the center of an earthquake. Over time, its meaning has shifted to include "the center," but it's not accurate; the Greek prefix epi- means "above."
  8. extinct
    no longer in existence
    It’s probably been extinct for much of that time.
    Exctinct is the word used for a volcano that is not dormant, but fully dead: no longer active in any way.
  9. fault
    a crack in the earth's crust resulting from displacement
    Nearby, scores of families sprinted, and dawdled along Cañada Road, which parallels Interstate 280 in the valley carved by the San Andreas fault.
  10. geyser
    a spring that discharges hot water and steam
    In May, a woman was knocked to the ground when she got too close to a bison near the popular Old Faithful geyser.
    Geysir means "gusher" in Icelandic, from the Old Norse verb gøysa. When water hits magma underground, the resulting steam and hot water sometimes shoots high up into the air through vents in the ground. Old Faithful in Yellowstone National Park is the most famous geyser in the U.S.
  11. lava
    rock that in its molten form issues from volcanos
    On some of their surfaces were oceans of lava that reached temperatures of more than 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit.
  12. lithosphere
    the part of the Earth consisting of the crust and mantle
    In this mode of planetary cooling, a convecting mantle conducts heat through a relatively rigid outer shell called the lithosphere.
    The Earth's core is molten iron, but everything above that — the mantle and the crust — that isn't water is known as the lithosphere. Litho-. means "rock" in Greek.
  13. magma
    molten rock in the earth's crust
    Fresh craters opened, and by the end of the month the first seismic signals of migrating magma were detected.
  14. mantle
    the layer of the earth between the crust and the core
    Echoes from the boundary between Earth’s molten core and the solid mantle layer above it led to the discovery.
    A mantellum is a cloak in Latin, which gave us mantle in English. Besides referring to big, drapey outerwear, it can also describe something that encloses, encircles, or otherwise wraps another thing. The layer between the Earth's core and crust is called the mantle because it surrounds the core.
  15. plate
    a rigid layer of the Earth's crust
    As North America’s tectonic plate slowly drifts over that plume, the supervolcano’s surface activity moves from place to place.
  16. seismic
    subject to or caused by an earthquake or earth vibration
    Greece lies in a highly seismically active region of the world, and earthquakes are common.
    Seismos is Greek for "earthquake," so words containing that root — like seismology, the study of earthquakes, or seismograph, a device for measuring their magnitude — all relate to that subject.
  17. tremor
    a small earthquake
    The quake hit the southern state of Oaxaca but the tremors were felt as far as 400 miles away in Mexico City.
  18. tsunami
    a cataclysm resulting from a destructive sea wave
    Deep disasters — earthquakes, tsunamis, pandemics and wars — tend to follow this type of distribution.
    Tsunami is a Japanese word. Sometimes people use "tidal wave" as a synonym, but tsunamis are the result of earthquakes under the ocean floor, not tides.
Created on June 27, 2020 (updated July 13, 2020)

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