solid unweathered stone beneath surface deposits of soil
Underneath the topsoil, the
bedrock yielded large, pristine footprints over 100 million years old.
is what you find when you dig down below the soil: solid rock, the Earth's crust. It's also used metaphorically, to refer to ideals, principles, or other concepts that are fundamental to a person or institution's identity.
water-soaked soil; soft, wet earth
In London, which is mostly built on
clay as opposed to Manhattan’s rock, they require ample foundations.
the act of crushing
You need paths separate from growing beds to avoid soil
Compacted soil is hard, like a dirt road or dried lake bed. It's difficult to dig, and not suited to planting crops.
a mixture of decaying vegetation and manure
Cuba became something of an organic farming pioneer in the 1990s, developing techniques like worm
composting, soil conservation and the use of biopesticides, to replace imported supplies and large scale monoculture.
Compost is decomposed plant matter, turned back into nutrient-rich soil by bacteria and fungi. Many gardeners have a
compost pile where they put kitchen scraps and garden waste to break down, adding it back to the soil the following year. In Old French,
composter is the verb for treating fields with manure to fertilize them.
decomposed, the earth would pile up kilometers-deep with the bodies of animals and plants.
compose something is to create it or put it together in some way, so decomposing is the act of breaking something down, as in a fallen tree rotting and returning to the soil.
the process of wearing or grinding something down
Goat teams need to work with land managers to achieve an appropriate level of vegetation removal that will reduce fire damage without causing
erosion or biodiversity loss.
rock fragments and pebbles
Today, the grave of the former Kingston Steel Drum looks unexceptional from Route 125, just an old
gravel pit built up with fill.
rock that in its molten form issues from volcanos
There are low-lying
lava plains formed when volcanoes erupted 10 million to 1 billion years ago.
Lava is Italian, from
lavare meaning "to wash." This seems strange until you know that, similar to English, a
wash is also a stream caused by torrential rain, and that's what certain kinds of
lava flows look like.
a rich soil consisting of sand, clay and organic materials
This entry-level bottle is from vines grown on loess and
loam on gentle slopes.
soft and watery, of soil
“It’s also difficult to send the patients to hospital because the roads are
muddy because of the rain.”
small pieces of organic material spread on soil
A path with
mulch, gravel, brick, pavers or flagstone with edging will encourage a stroll.
If you've seen circles of wood chips around the bases of trees in a landscaped area, that's
mulch. It prevents weeds and helps the soil retain water.
Mulch comes from the Germanic word
mölsch, meaning "wet."
having properties characteristic of living beings
Produce grown this way typically sells at prices that, while generally higher than those of classic intensive agriculture, are lower than soil-based
full of holes
Basically Virtually everywhere they look, scientists are finding microorganisms living in
porous rock deep underground, both on land and under the seafloor.
matter that has been deposited by some natural process
Colonies of photosynthesizing bacteria, which boosted early Earth’s oxygen, created the layered formations by depositing carbonates and trapping
sediment in ancient, shallow seas.
sediment refers to tiny particles of earth that settle to the bottom of a body of water.
Sedimentary rock is one of the three major types of rock.
mud or clay or small rocks deposited by a river or lake
These summer floods, sustained by monsoon rains in the highlands of Ethiopia, delivered irrigation and
silt, both critical to Egypt’s agrarian society.
Silt is the product of runoff or erosion: tiny particles of rock and clay carried by water to a low spot where they settle. Over millions of years, layers of
silt can become compacted by the pressure of more layers and turn into various types of sedimentary rock.
material in the top layer of the surface of the earth
They switched from being hunter-gathers to being tillers of the
soil and herders of animals.
one of several parallel layers of material
In east-central Arizona, 110 miles from Flagstaff, the Petrified Forest adjoins the Painted Desert, 7,500 square miles of badlands and hills tinted lavender and red by Triassic Age
Stratum means "layer." If you've ever seen a road cut through a hillside, or been on an archaeological dig, you've seen horizontal layers of different types of rock or soil: kind of like a layer cake.
relating to eruptions of gas and lava from the earth's crust
Indonesia is prone to earthquakes and
volcanic eruptions because of its location along the Pacific “Ring of Fire.”
Lava from ancient eruptions can become various kinds of soil depending on how it breaks down and mixes with other materials over time.