2020欧洲杯时间

The Federalist Papers, No. 9 by Alexander Hamilton

This essay was published on November 21, 1787 in response to objectors who did not think that the United States would succeed as a confederate republic due to its size. Read the full text .
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Explore the Words

definitions & notes only words
  1. faction
    a clique that seeks power usually through intrigue
    A firm Union will be of the utmost moment to the peace and liberty of the States, as a barrier against domestic faction and insurrection.
  2. insurrection
    organized opposition to authority
    A firm Union will be of the utmost moment to the peace and liberty of the States, as a barrier against domestic faction and insurrection.
  3. felicity
    state of well-being characterized by contentment
    If now and then intervals of felicity open to view, we behold them with a mixture of regret, arising from the reflection that the pleasing scenes before us are soon to be overwhelmed by the tempestuous waves of sedition and party rage.
  4. tempestuous
    characterized by violent emotions or behavior
    If now and then intervals of felicity open to view, we behold them with a mixture of regret, arising from the reflection that the pleasing scenes before us are soon to be overwhelmed by the tempestuous waves of sedition and party rage.
  5. sedition
    an illegal action inciting resistance to lawful authority
    If now and then intervals of felicity open to view, we behold them with a mixture of regret, arising from the reflection that the pleasing scenes before us are soon to be overwhelmed by the tempestuous waves of sedition and party rage.
  6. transient
    lasting a very short time
    If momentary rays of glory break forth from the gloom, while they dazzle us with a transient and fleeting brilliancy, they at the same time admonish us to lament that the vices of government should pervert the direction and tarnish the lustre of those bright talents and exalted endowments for which the favored soils that produced them have been so justly celebrated.
  7. fleeting
    lasting for a markedly brief time
    If momentary rays of glory break forth from the gloom, while they dazzle us with a transient and fleeting brilliancy, they at the same time admonish us to lament that the vices of government should pervert the direction and tarnish the lustre of those bright talents and exalted endowments for which the favored soils that produced them have been so justly celebrated.
  8. admonish
    warn strongly; put on guard
    If momentary rays of glory break forth from the gloom, while they dazzle us with a transient and fleeting brilliancy, they at the same time admonish us to lament that the vices of government should pervert the direction and tarnish the lustre [luster] of those bright talents and exalted endowments for which the favored soils that produced them have been so justly celebrated.
  9. exalted
    of high moral or intellectual value
    If momentary rays of glory break forth from the gloom, while they dazzle us with a transient and fleeting brilliancy, they at the same time admonish us to lament that the vices of government should pervert the direction and tarnish the lustre of those bright talents and exalted endowments for which the favored soils that produced them have been so justly celebrated.
  10. endowment
    natural abilities or qualities
    If momentary rays of glory break forth from the gloom, while they dazzle us with a transient and fleeting brilliancy, they at the same time admonish us to lament that the vices of government should pervert the direction and tarnish the lustre of those bright talents and exalted endowments for which the favored soils that produced them have been so justly celebrated.
  11. annals
    a chronological account of events in successive years
    From the disorders that disfigure the annals of those republics the advocates of despotism have drawn arguments, not only against the forms of republican government, but against the very principles of civil liberty.
  12. despotism
    a form of government in which the ruler is unconstrained
    From the disorders that disfigure the annals of those republics the advocates of despotism have drawn arguments, not only against the forms of republican government, but against the very principles of civil liberty.
  13. decry
    express strong disapproval of
    They have decried all free government as inconsistent with the order of society, and have indulged themselves in malicious exultation over its friends and partisans.
  14. exultation
    a feeling of extreme joy
    They have decried all free government as inconsistent with the order of society, and have indulged themselves in malicious exultation over its friends and partisans.
  15. partisan
    an enthusiastic supporter of some person or activity
    They have decried all free government as inconsistent with the order of society, and have indulged themselves in malicious exultation over its friends and partisans.
  16. sophism
    a deliberately invalid argument displaying ingenuity in reasoning in the hope of deceiving someone
    Happily for mankind, stupendous fabrics reared on the basis of liberty, which have flourished for ages, have, in a few glorious instances, refuted their gloomy sophisms.
  17. edifice
    a structure that has a roof and walls
    And, I trust, America will be the broad and solid foundation of other edifices, not less magnificent, which will be equally permanent monuments of their errors.
  18. efficacy
    capacity or power to produce a desired result
    The efficacy of various principles is now well understood, which were either not known at all, or imperfectly known to the ancients.
  19. amelioration
    the act of relieving ills and changing for the better
    To this catalogue of circumstances that tend to the amelioration of popular systems of civil government, I shall venture, however novel it may appear to some, to add one more, on a principle which has been made the foundation of an objection to the new Constitution; I mean the enlargement of the orbit within which such systems are to revolve, either in respect to the dimensions of a single State or to the consolidation of several smaller States into one great Confederacy.
  20. sanction
    formal and explicit approval
    The utility of a Confederacy, as well to suppress faction and to guard the internal tranquillity of States, as to increase their external force and security, is in reality not a new idea. It has been practiced upon in different countries and ages, and has received the sanction of the most approved writers on the subject of politics.
  21. assiduity
    great and constant diligence and attention
    The opponents of the plan proposed have, with great assiduity, cited and circulated the observations of Montesquieu on the necessity of a contracted territory for a republican government.
  22. apprise
    inform somebody of something
    But they seem not to have been apprised of the sentiments of that great man expressed in another part of his work, nor to have adverted to the consequences of the principle to which they subscribe with such ready acquiescence.
  23. advert
    make reference to
    But they seem not to have been apprised of the sentiments of that great man expressed in another part of his work, nor to have adverted to the consequences of the principle to which they subscribe with such ready acquiescence.
  24. acquiescence
    acceptance without protest
    But they seem not to have been apprised of the sentiments of that great man expressed in another part of his work, nor to have adverted to the consequences of the principle to which they subscribe with such ready acquiescence.
  25. tumultuous
    characterized by unrest or disorder or insubordination
    If we therefore take his ideas on this point as the criterion of truth, we shall be driven to the alternative either of taking refuge at once in the arms of monarchy, or of splitting ourselves into an infinity of little, jealous, clashing, tumultuous commonwealths, the wretched nurseries of unceasing discord, and the miserable objects of universal pity or contempt.
  26. commonwealth
    a politically organized body of people under a government
    If we therefore take his ideas on this point as the criterion of truth, we shall be driven to the alternative either of taking refuge at once in the arms of monarchy, or of splitting ourselves into an infinity of little, jealous, clashing, tumultuous commonwealths, the wretched nurseries of unceasing discord, and the miserable objects of universal pity or contempt.
  27. infatuated
    marked by foolish or unreasoning fondness
    Such an infatuated policy, such a desperate expedient, might, by the multiplication of petty offices, answer the views of men who possess not qualifications to extend their influence beyond the narrow circles of personal intrigue, but it could never promote the greatness or happiness of the people of America.
  28. expedient
    a means to an end
    Such an infatuated policy, such a desperate expedient, might, by the multiplication of petty offices, answer the views of men who possess not qualifications to extend their influence beyond the narrow circles of personal intrigue, but it could never promote the greatness or happiness of the people of America.
  29. intrigue
    a crafty and involved plot to achieve your ends
    Such an infatuated policy, such a desperate expedient, might, by the multiplication of petty offices, answer the views of men who possess not qualifications to extend their influence beyond the narrow circles of personal intrigue, but it could never promote the greatness or happiness of the people of America.
  30. emphatic
    forceful and definite in expression or action
    Referring the examination of the principle itself to another place, as has been already mentioned, it will be sufficient to remark here that, in the sense of the author who has been most emphatically quoted upon the occasion, it would only dictate a reduction of the size of the more considerable members of the Union, but would not militate against their being all comprehended in one confederate government.
  31. militate
    have force or influence; bring about an effect or change
    Referring the examination of the principle itself to another place, as has been already mentioned, it will be sufficient to remark here that, in the sense of the author who has been most emphatically quoted upon the occasion, it would only dictate a reduction of the size of the more considerable members of the Union, but would not militate against their being all comprehended in one confederate government.
  32. contrive
    make or work out a plan for; devise
    "It is very probable," (says he) "that mankind would have been obliged at length to live constantly under the government of a single person, had they not contrived a kind of constitution that has all the internal advantages of a republican, together with the external force of a monarchical government. I mean a confederate republic...."
  33. assemblage
    several things grouped together or considered as a whole
    It is a kind of assemblage of societies that constitute a new one, capable of increasing, by means of new associations, till they arrive to such a degree of power as to be able to provide for the security of the united body.
  34. usurpation
    wrongfully seizing and holding by force
    Were he to subdue a part, that which would still remain free might oppose him with forces independent of those which he had usurped and overpower him before he could be settled in his usurpation.
  35. quell
    suppress or crush completely
    Should a popular insurrection happen in one of the confederate states the others are able to quell it.
  36. confederacy
    a union of political organizations
    Should abuses creep into one part, they are reformed by those that remain sound. The state may be destroyed on one side, and not on the other; the confederacy may be dissolved, and the confederates preserve their sovereignty.
  37. suffrage
    a legal right to vote
    An exact equality of suffrage between the members has also been insisted upon as a leading feature of a confederate government.
  38. discretion
    freedom to act or judge on one's own
    The extent, modifications, and objects of the federal authority are mere matters of discretion.
  39. subordination
    the state of being lower in rank to something
    So long as the separate organization of the members be not abolished; so long as it exists, by a constitutional necessity, for local purposes; though it should be in perfect subordination to the general authority of the union, it would still be, in fact and in theory, an association of states, or a confederacy.
  40. respective
    considered individually
    In the Lycian confederacy, which consisted of twenty-three cities or republics, the largest were entitled to three votes in the common council, those of the middle class to two, and the smallest to one. The common council had the appointment of all the judges and magistrates of the respective cities.
Created on January 14, 2020 (updated January 27, 2020)

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