2020欧洲杯时间

The Federalist Papers, No. 23 by Alexander Hamilton

In this essay, published on December 18, 1787, Hamilton argues that the federal government must be granted sufficient power to provide for military defense. Read the full text .
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definitions & notes only words
  1. convulsion
    a violent disturbance
    The principal purposes to be answered by union are these the common defense of the members; the preservation of the public peace as well against internal convulsions as external attacks; the regulation of commerce with other nations and between the States; the superintendence of our intercourse, political and commercial, with foreign countries.
  2. exigency
    a pressing or urgent situation
    These powers ought to exist without limitation, because it is impossible to foresee or define the extent and variety of national exigencies, or the correspondent extent and variety of the means which may be necessary to satisfy them.
  3. prejudiced
    showing bias or bigotry or influenced by preconceived ideas
    This is one of those truths which, to a correct and unprejudiced mind, carries its own evidence along with it; and may be obscured, but cannot be made plainer by argument or reasoning.
  4. obscure
    make unclear
    This is one of those truths which, to a correct and unprejudiced mind, carries its own evidence along with it; and may be obscured, but cannot be made plainer by argument or reasoning.
  5. axiom
    a saying that is widely accepted on its own merits
    It rests upon axioms as simple as they are universal; the means ought to be proportioned to the end; the persons, from whose agency the attainment of any end is expected, ought to possess the means by which it is to be attained.
  6. determinate
    precisely limited or defined, especially fixed by rule
    And unless it can be shown that the circumstances which may affect the public safety are reducible within certain determinate limits; unless the contrary of this position can be fairly and rationally disputed, it must be admitted, as a necessary consequence, that there can be no limitation of that authority which is to provide for the defense and protection of the community...
  7. efficacy
    capacity or power to produce a desired result
    ...there can be no limitation of that authority which is to provide for the defense and protection of the community, in any matter essential to its efficacy that is, in any matter essential to the formation, direction, or support of the national forces.
  8. provision
    the activity of supplying something
    Defective as the present Confederation has been proved to be, this principle appears to have been fully recognized by the framers of it; though they have not made proper or adequate provision for its exercise.
  9. discretion
    the trait of judging wisely and objectively
    Congress have an unlimited discretion to make requisitions of men and money; to govern the army and navy; to direct their operations.
  10. requisition
    an authoritative demand
    Congress have an unlimited discretion to make requisitions of men and money; to govern the army and navy; to direct their operations.
  11. solemn
    dignified and somber in manner or character
    As their requisitions are made constitutionally binding upon the States, who are in fact under the most solemn obligations to furnish the supplies required of them, the intention evidently was that the United States should command whatever resources were by them judged requisite to the "common defense and general welfare."
  12. impartial
    free from undue bias or preconceived opinions
    The experiment has, however, demonstrated that this expectation was ill-founded and illusory; and the observations, made under the last head, will, I imagine, have sufficed to convince the impartial and discerning, that there is an absolute necessity for an entire change in the first principles of the system...
  13. discerning
    having or revealing keen insight and good judgment
    The experiment has, however, demonstrated that this expectation was ill-founded and illusory; and the observations, made under the last head, will, I imagine, have sufficed to convince the impartial and discerning, that there is an absolute necessity for an entire change in the first principles of the system...
  14. vain
    unproductive of success
    ...if we are in earnest about giving the Union energy and duration, we must abandon the vain project of legislating upon the States in their collective capacities...
  15. capacity
    a specified function
    ...if we are in earnest about giving the Union energy and duration, we must abandon the vain project of legislating upon the States in their collective capacities...
  16. fallacious
    containing or based on incorrect reasoning
    ...we must extend the laws of the federal government to the individual citizens of America; we must discard the fallacious scheme of quotas and requisitions, as equally impracticable and unjust.
  17. quota
    a prescribed number
    ...we must extend the laws of the federal government to the individual citizens of America; we must discard the fallacious scheme of quotas and requisitions, as equally impracticable and unjust.
  18. levy
    cause to assemble or enlist in the military
    The result from all this is that the Union ought to be invested with full power to levy troops; to build and equip fleets; and to raise the revenues which will be required for the formation and support of an army and navy, in the customary and ordinary modes practiced in other governments.
  19. appertain
    be a part or attribute of
    If the circumstances of our country are such as to demand a compound instead of a simple, a confederate instead of a sole, government, the essential point which will remain to be adjusted will be to discriminate the objects, as far as it can be done, which shall appertain to the different provinces or departments of power; allowing to each the most ample authority for fulfilling the objects committed to its charge.
  20. cognizance
    the range of what one can know or understand
    Is the administration of justice between the citizens of the same State the proper department of the local governments? These must possess all the authorities which are connected with this object, and with every other that may be allotted to their particular cognizance and direction.
  21. confer
    present
    Not to confer in each case a degree of power commensurate to the end, would be to violate the most obvious rules of prudence and propriety, and improvidently to trust the great interests of the nation to hands which are disabled from managing them with vigor and success.
  22. commensurate
    corresponding in size or degree or extent
    Not to confer in each case a degree of power commensurate to the end, would be to violate the most obvious rules of prudence and propriety, and improvidently to trust the great interests of the nation to hands which are disabled from managing them with vigor and success.
  23. prudence
    discretion in practical affairs
    Not to confer in each case a degree of power commensurate to the end, would be to violate the most obvious rules of prudence and propriety, and improvidently to trust the great interests of the nation to hands which are disabled from managing them with vigor and success.
  24. propriety
    correct behavior
    Not to confer in each case a degree of power commensurate to the end, would be to violate the most obvious rules of prudence and propriety, and improvidently to trust the great interests of the nation to hands which are disabled from managing them with vigor and success.
  25. improvident
    not given careful consideration
    Not to confer in each case a degree of power commensurate to the end, would be to violate the most obvious rules of prudence and propriety, and improvidently to trust the great interests of the nation to hands which are disabled from managing them with vigor and success.
  26. manifest
    clearly revealed to the mind or the senses or judgment
    Is there not a manifest inconsistency in devolving upon the federal government the care of the general defense, and leaving in the State governments the effective powers by which it is to be provided for?
  27. devolve
    pass on or delegate to another
    Is there not a manifest inconsistency in devolving upon the federal government the care of the general defense, and leaving in the State governments the effective powers by which it is to be provided for?
  28. undue
    not appropriate or proper in the circumstances
    And will not weakness, disorder, an undue distribution of the burdens and calamities of war, an unnecessary and intolerable increase of expense, be its natural and inevitable concomitants?
  29. concomitant
    an event or situation that happens at the same time
    And will not weakness, disorder, an undue distribution of the burdens and calamities of war, an unnecessary and intolerable increase of expense, be its natural and inevitable concomitants?
  30. unequivocal
    admitting of no doubt or misunderstanding
    Have we not had unequivocal experience of its effects in the course of the revolution which we have just accomplished?
  31. candid
    openly straightforward and direct without secretiveness
    Every view we may take of the subject, as candid inquirers after truth, will serve to convince us, that it is both unwise and dangerous to deny the federal government an unconfined authority, as to all those objects which are intrusted to its management.
  32. dispassionate
    unaffected by strong emotion or prejudice
    If any plan which has been, or may be, offered to our consideration, should not, upon a dispassionate inspection, be found to answer this description, it ought to be rejected.
  33. promulgate
    state or announce
    And the adversaries of the plan promulgated by the convention ought to have confined themselves to showing, that the internal structure of the proposed government was such as to render it unworthy of the confidence of the people.
  34. render
    cause to become
    A government, the constitution of which renders it unfit to be trusted with all the powers which a free people ought to delegate to any government, would be an unsafe and improper depositary of the national interests.
  35. cavil
    a minor objection evading the point of an argument
    They ought not to have wandered into inflammatory declamations and unmeaning cavils about the extent of the powers.
  36. insinuate
    suggest in an indirect or covert way; give to understand
    If it be true, as has been insinuated by some of the writers on the other side, that the difficulty arises from the nature of the thing, and that the extent of the country will not permit us to form a government in which such ample powers can safely be reposed, it would prove that we ought to contract our views, and resort to the expedient of separate confederacies, which will move within more practicable spheres.
  37. repose
    put or place something (e.g., trust) in or on
    If it be true, as has been insinuated by some of the writers on the other side, that the difficulty arises from the nature of the thing, and that the extent of the country will not permit us to form a government in which such ample powers can safely be reposed, it would prove that we ought to contract our views, and resort to the expedient of separate confederacies, which will move within more practicable spheres.
  38. expedient
    a means to an end
    If it be true, as has been insinuated by some of the writers on the other side, that the difficulty arises from the nature of the thing, and that the extent of the country will not permit us to form a government in which such ample powers can safely be reposed, it would prove that we ought to contract our views, and resort to the expedient of separate confederacies, which will move within more practicable spheres.
  39. creed
    any system of principles or beliefs
    If we embrace the tenets of those who oppose the adoption of the proposed Constitution, as the standard of our political creed, we cannot fail to verify the gloomy doctrines which predict the impracticability of a national system pervading entire limits of the present Confederacy.
  40. pervade
    spread or diffuse through
    If we embrace the tenets of those who oppose the adoption of the proposed Constitution, as the standard of our political creed, we cannot fail to verify the gloomy doctrines which predict the impracticability of a national system pervading entire limits of the present Confederacy.
Created on January 10, 2020 (updated January 28, 2020)

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