2020欧洲杯时间

Chapters 1–3

This memoir recounts Noah's childhood in South Africa during the last years of apartheid.

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definitions & notes only words
  1. apartheid
    a social policy of racial segregation
    The genius of apartheid was convincing people who were the overwhelming majority to turn on each other.
  2. faction
    a dissenting clique
    Long before apartheid existed these tribal factions clashed and warred with one another.
  3. animosity
    a feeling of ill will arousing active hostility
    Then white rule used that animosity to divide and conquer.
  4. futility
    uselessness as a consequence of having no practical result
    The Xhosa waged a long war against the white man as well, but after experiencing the futility of battle against a better-armed foe, many Xhosa chiefs took a more nimble approach.
  5. catharsis
    purging of emotional tensions
    The third church offered passion and catharsis; it was a place where you truly felt the presence of the Holy Spirit inside you.
  6. accrue
    come into the possession of
    The more time we spent at church, she reckoned, the more blessings we accrued, like a Starbucks Rewards Card.
  7. obstinacy
    resolute adherence to your own ideas or desires
    Whenever I found myself up against my mother’s faith-based obstinacy, I would try, as respectfully as possible, to counter with an opposing point of view.
  8. spate
    a large number or amount or extent
    Spates of violence broke out between the Inkatha Freedom Party and the ANC, the African National Congress, as they jockeyed for power.
  9. jockey
    compete or struggle for an advantage or a position
    Spates of violence broke out between the Inkatha Freedom Party and the ANC, the African National Congress, as they jockeyed for power.
  10. encompass
    include in scope
    The ANC was a broad coalition encompassing many different tribes, but its leaders at the time were primarily Xhosa.
  11. sprawling
    spreading out in different directions
    Eden Park sat not far from the sprawling townships of the East Rand, Thokoza and Katlehong, which were the sites of some of the most horrific Inkatha—ANC clashes.
  12. crony
    a close friend or associate
    Another guy, his crony, got out of the passenger side.
  13. harangue
    address forcefully
    In addition to being violent gangsters, South African minibus drivers are notorious for complaining and haranguing passengers as they drive.
  14. promiscuous
    casual and unrestrained in sexual behavior
    The stereotypes of Zulu and Xhosa women were as ingrained as those of the men. Zulu women were well-behaved and dutiful. Xhosa women were promiscuous and unfaithful.
  15. subjugate
    make subservient; force to submit or subdue
    To impose white rule, the Dutch colonists went to war with the natives, ultimately developing a set of laws to subjugate and enslave them.
  16. expendable
    suitable to be used up
    They did so because, in the mid-1800s, in what had been written off as a near-worthless way station on the route to the Far East, a few lucky capitalists stumbled upon the richest gold and diamond reserves in the world, and an endless supply of expendable bodies was needed to go in the ground and get it all out.
  17. robust
    sturdy and strong in form, constitution, or construction
    To maintain power in the face of the country’s rising and restless black majority, the government realized they needed a newer and more robust set of tools.
  18. compendium
    a publication containing a variety of works
    A full compendium of those laws would run more than three thousand pages and weigh approximately ten pounds, but the general thrust of it should be easy enough for any American to understand.
  19. rebuke
    an act or expression of criticism and censure
    Race-mixing proves that races can mix—and in a lot of cases, want to mix. Because a mixed person embodies that rebuke to the logic of the system, race-mixing becomes a crime worse than treason.
  20. buffer
    a neutral zone between two rival powers
    Indian areas were segregated from colored areas, which were segregated from black areas—all of them segregated from white areas and separated from one another by buffer zones of empty land.
  21. ramification
    a consequence, especially one that causes complications
    If you ask my mother whether she ever considered the ramifications of having a mixed child under apartheid, she will say no.
  22. quell
    overcome or allay
    In the early 1980s, the South African government began making minor reforms in an attempt to quell international protest over the atrocities and human rights abuses of apartheid.
  23. contrive
    make or work out a plan for; devise
    So she stayed in town, hiding and sleeping in public restrooms until she learned the rules of navigating the city from the other black women who had contrived to live there...
  24. expatriate
    a person who is voluntarily absent from home or country
    As a former trading colony, South Africa has always had a large expatriate community.
  25. cosmopolitan
    composed of people from many parts of the world
    Hillbrow at the time was the Greenwich Village of South Africa. It was a thriving scene, cosmopolitan and liberal.
  26. estrange
    remove from customary environment or associations
    Estranged from her family, pregnant by a man she could not be seen with in public, she was alone.
  27. statute
    an act passed by a legislative body
    The doctors took her up to the delivery room, cut open her belly, and reached in and pulled out a half-white, half-black child who violated any number of laws, statutes, and regulations—I was born a crime.
  28. prodigal
    recklessly wasteful
    When I was born, my mother hadn’t seen her family in three years, but she wanted me to know them and wanted them to know me, so the prodigal daughter returned.
  29. insurrection
    organized opposition to authority
    The township was in a constant state of insurrection; someone was always marching or protesting somewhere and had to be suppressed.
  30. shaman
    one acting as a medium between the visible and spirit worlds
    I come from a country where people are more likely to visit sangomas— shamans, traditional healers, pejoratively known as witch doctors—than they are to visit doctors of Western medicine.
  31. pejorative
    expressing disapproval
    I come from a country where people are more likely to visit sangomas—shamans, traditional healers, pejoratively known as witch doctors—than they are to visit doctors of Western medicine.
  32. docket
    the calendar of a court
    The court is presided over by a judge. There is a docket. There is a prosecutor.
  33. staunch
    firm and dependable especially in loyalty
    Your defense attorney has to prove lack of motive, go through the crime-scene forensics, present a staunch defense.
  34. temperance
    the trait of avoiding excesses
    His name was Temperance Noah, which was odd since he was not a man of moderation at all.
  35. boisterous
    noisy and lacking in restraint or discipline
    He was boisterous and loud.
  36. eccentric
    conspicuously or grossly unconventional or unusual
    We found out much later in life that he was bipolar, but before that we just thought he was eccentric.
  37. dinky
    small and insignificant
    Dinky, as his name implies, was dinky.
  38. masquerade
    making a false outward show
    Dinky was trying to masquerade as this patriarch that he wasn’t.
  39. recourse
    something or someone turned to for assistance or security
    In Soweto you were always hearing about men getting doused with pots of boiling water—often a woman’s only recourse. And men were lucky if it was water. Some women used hot cooking oil.
  40. cataract
    disease that involves the clouding of the lens of the eye
    Her eyes had gone white, clouded over by cataracts.
  41. shanty
    a small crude shelter used as a dwelling
    You’d first build a shanty on your plot, a makeshift structure of plywood and corrugated iron.
  42. corrugated
    shaped into alternating parallel grooves and ridges
    You’d first build a shanty on your plot, a makeshift structure of plywood and corrugated iron.
  43. bewitch
    cast a spell over someone or something
    My mother gasped. “We’ve been bewitched! It’s a demon!”
  44. totem
    emblem consisting of an object such as an animal or plant
    If someone has put a curse on you or your home, there is always the talisman or totem, a tuft of hair or the head of a cat, the physical manifestation of the spiritual thing, proof of the demon’s presence.
  45. manifestation
    an appearance in bodily form
    If someone has put a curse on you or your home, there is always the talisman or totem, a tuft of hair or the head of a cat, the physical manifestation of the spiritual thing, proof of the demon’s presence.
Created on July 31, 2018 (updated August 1, 2018)

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